English title

Problem Definition:

Contact lenses have been used for decades to correct vision, which is also their only function. Recently, however, research is being conducted to expand this functionality by integrating optical and electronic components inside the lens (see figures below). The first applications are relatively simple, such as a lens with a small optical warning signal or with automatic dimming function (automatic sunglasses). The final application could be a genuine Contact Lens Display (CLD). The pixels in such a CLD, however, are outside the focus of the human eye and therefore, no sharp image can be projected on the retina. Moreover, the image of the CLD should be superimposed on the normal vision, which requires a dual focus lens. If one wants to achieve this eventually, solutions to this problem must be put forward first.


In this master thesis, the student will conduct a thorough study of solutions of the focusing problem in a Contact Lens Display. Starting with a literature study of projection techniques (e.g. holography) and passive and active optical elements (e.g. microlenses, Fresnel zone plates, microLEDs and VCSELs), the student will develop possible solutions and designs and investigate them quantitatively using simulation programs. In one of such programs, ZEMAX, one can already start from an existing eye model (see figure beneath). Exploratory work with this model indicated the pixel size should be at least 1 micron to attain an acceptable resolution on the retina. This means a considerable amount of attention will need to be given to diffraction effects and their influence on the resolution of the display. At the end of the master thesis, recommendations should be formulated which can serve as a guide for further technological developments of the CLD.


contact lens, display, focusing, simulatie / contact lens, display, focusing, simulation


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